Autonomia robotnicza

Autonomia robotnicza
Aby zapobiec degeneracji ruchu społecznego, włoscy autonomiści zrealizowali koncepcję, wybiegającą o krok dalej od realiów ruchów czy partii oficjalnie kontestujących, lecz rzeczywiście potwierdzających istnienie kapitalizmu, w jego ewentualnie odświeżonej formie i treści. Dokonali analizy z punktu widzenia tych, którzy najbardziej odczuwali agresywny charakter gospodarki.

Marksizm i anarchizm

Marksizm i anarchizm
Upadek marksizmu w sferze politycznej i kompromitacja praktycznej realizacji idei „dyktatury proletariatu”, pociągnęły za sobą ogromne przeobrażenia na płaszczyźnie kulturowej. Ideolodzy systemu kapitalistycznego, mogli więc ogłosić „koniec historii”, ruch rewolucyjny został wyrugowany nie tylko w sensie fizycznym, zniknął również z ludzkich umysłów.

Teorie kryzysu

Teorie kryzysu
Czy kryzysy są wpisane w naturę sytemu kapitalistycznego, czy też są wywołane czynnikami wobec niego zewnętrznymi? Rozstrzygnięcie tego dylematu oczywiście ma spore znaczenie dla postawy, jaką dziś przyjmiemy: odrzucimy system w całości, czy będziemy starali się go jedynie reformować... aby dotrwał do następnego wstrząsu.

Samorządowa alternatywa

Samorządowa alternatywa
Czy w latach 80. istniała w ruchu "Solidarność" samorządowa alternatywa, zarówno dla PRL-owskiego socjalizmu, jak i dla kapitalizmu? Co się z nią stało? Czy samorządowa rewolucja została zdradzona, a jeśli tak to przez kogo? Na te pytania, mające fundamentalne znaczenie dla zrozumienia dzisiejszej sytuacji w Polsce, staramy się znaleźć odpowiedź w "Przeglądzie".

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The Anarchist Review presents debates of radical social movements in Poland and abroad. By promoting and criticizing libertarian trends we develop knowledge about self-organisation and action strategies. You can find theoretical texts besides reports on practical activity, all with a global perspective.

WORK IN SCHOOL AND IN FACTORY

Libertarian Education: How is it possible?
Piotr Laskowski

Let us imagine a school that does not teach you to be "someone", that does not follow a clear purpose, but gives students a chance to judge things from a distance and to opt for resistance. This is what knowledge is about: to associate oneself with culture, not to take control over reality, but to create an intrinsic space both in and beyond reality. In order to prevent a situation where distance turns into isolation the school cannot be an institution, but has to be a community of friends who are understanding, caring and unselfish.

 

A Critique of Commodified Education and Knowledge (From Africa to Maine)
George Caffentzis

Although there previously have been eras when higher education was sold as a commodity and academics offered the knowledge "they produced" to the highest bidder, the contemporary barrier between university and market has grown so permeable that many academics are losing the sense of the distinction. Symptoms of this crisis abound everywhere around and in us. In this lecture I will challenge this commodification of academic research and higher education. To do this I first locate a common presupposition of the neoliberal, commodifying vision: knowledge is property. Second, I will examine the impact of neoliberal policies on university systems in Africa that, among the world's regions, have been least able to resist them.

 

On Schoolwork and the Struggle Against It
Harry Cleaver

In what follows, I focus on the work of professors and students and their interactions. I first describe and analyze what I and other professors are supposed to do, what students are supposed to do, what our relationship is supposed to be and some of the negative consequences that we suffer. In other words, as Marx does in Capital, I lay out the nature and dynamics of work according to the logic of capital that dominates the way the university is set up and structured to operate. Afterwards I discuss how that logic can be, and often is, ruptured, as we – professors and students – struggle against it, struggle to craft alternative uses of our time and energy and struggle not to lose, or to create, our freedom and autonomy.

 

Recomposing the University
Discussion between Tiziana Terranova and Marc Bousquet

Tiziana Terranova and Marc Bousquet discuss the effects of neoliberalism on the university and possible lines of resistance. Far removed from the clichéd image of the "ivory tower", today's universities have been opened to the harsh realities of neoliberal economics: huge volumes of students, extreme levels of performance-geared management, casualisation of employment, and the conversion of students into "consumers". Bousquet and Terranova, themselves employed in US and British universities respectively, describe the way the system works from the inside and look at the possibilities for getting out of it.

 

STRUGGLES IN THE SCHOOLS AND ON THE STREETS

The Misery of Student Protests. Criticism of the Educational Strike
La Banda Vaga

If protesters insist on limiting their protest to the university sphere they perpetuate the current state of an education that functions as a means of competition on the battlefield of the market. The abolition of this state implies the abolition of education through its realization, it implies a radical – theoretical and practical – critique of society.

 

Hope against Hope: A Necessary Betrayal
Nic Beuret

The window is broken. We can see clearly that the university is a machine that creates social death. Eventually the inspiration of the initial fight and victory will fade, and the content of the revolt will have to stand on its own. If the content of that struggle is only to restore that machine, to defend the freedom to be unequal, failure is all we can hope for. But if the struggle calls into question the very existence of such a machine, and reopens the question of learning as opposed to education, of self-development, the exploration of interest and inclination, and to allow for the navigation of curiosity and desire; in short, learning as a way of creating new possibilities and meaning, then the window may stay broken for a long time to come.

 

All Power to the Assemblies! The Croatian Student Movement and Direct Democracy in Practice
Krystian Szadkowski

Before I turn to the Zagreb occupations, I want to say a few words about the background of the crisis. More and more countries, not only in Europe but in the whole world, are struggling with this crisis, which is rooted not just in the collapse of the neoliberal capitalist model but also in the state of the universities.

 

The Occupation Cookbook or the Model of the Occupation of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb

What does it mean to "occupy" a school? A school occupation is not, as the corporate media like to portray it, a hostile takeover. A school occupation is an action by those who are already its inhabitants – students, faculty, and staff – and those for whom the school exists. (Which is to say for a public institution, the public itself.) The actions termed "occupations" of a public institution, then, are really re-occupations, a renovation and reopening to the public of a space long captured and stolen by the private interests of wealth and privilege. The goal of this renovation and reopening is to inhabit school spaces as fully as possible, to make them truly habitable – to make the school a place fit for living.

 

Wages for Work... and Beads for the Indians from the Polish Campuses
Piotr Kowzan

It is obvious that the Bologna Process has led to the birth of a new currency independent of the state. However, this currency shows an interesting feature: The points students collect and put into their accounts cannot be exchanged into anything except for a diploma. Students receive points like "Indians" received glass beads. The beads are worthless for those who grant them in return for the students' work. They have a specific value only for students who live in their gated university reservations. The beads are a measurement for the time that is required to complete the studies and obtain a diploma.

 

Factories and Schools in Times of Crisis
Discussion

The Polish movement does not discuss education. We have no in-depth analysis of this issue, especially on the exchange and processing of knowledge. What is education supposed to be, and what should it be based on? In what way should knowledge circulate? Should it be provided to one social class or should it cross class boundaries? Should it teach people just one profession, or should it be a life-long process? These are some of the questions the movement does not address.

 

FOOTBALL REGIMES


Soccer vs. The State. Tackling Football and Radical Politics
Gabriel Kuhn

Soccer has turned into a multi-billion dollar industry. Professionalism and commercialization dominate its global image. Yet the game retains a rebellious side, maybe more so than any other sport co-opted by money makers and corrupt politicians. From its roots in working-class England to political protests by players and fans, and a current radical soccer underground, the notion of football as the "people's game" has been kept alive by numerous individuals, teams, and communities. This chapter of the book reflects on criticisms: soccer ferments nationalism, serves right-wing powers, fosters competitiveness.

 

Euro 2010 – Games but no Bread
Jarosław Urbański

These stories about Polish teams describe the recent commercialization of football. The sport has to adjust to market mechanisms and has to follow the rules of the new class of club owners. What is more, Poland is one of the two hosts of the European Championships in 2012 and has to invest millions for the infrastructure. As a result, many cities face high debts and introduce drastic cuts: civil servants and other state worker are laid off, city property is sold, and fees for public services are increased.

 

No one is going to tell us, what we shall do!
Interview with a fan of the Lech Poznan football team

“Media and politicians portray football fans as criminals. Events involving football fans are presented in a way that society buys that picture. What happened in Zielona Gora is a good example: a police car ran over a football fan and killed him. Riots broke out, and according to the media two policewomen were “seriously hurt”. Later, football fans wanted to find out about their health condition, and it turned out that nothing happened to one of them while the other one was kept in a hospital without any reason. It was just a show! The day after, the death of the football fan seemed not important anymore, important was just the fact that policewomen were hurt. The aim was to show that football fans are beasts.”

 

FORMS OF IMPRISONMENT

Arrested, Convicted, Imprisoned
M.M., Robert Bratkowski

The regime change in Poland did not produce many changes in the penitentiary system. Reforms were introduced slowly, and the number of prisoners is much higher than it was during the time of socialism in Poland. The prison conditions have not improved, despite the promises of the authorities since 1989. Poland takes the first place in Europe in absolute numbers of inmates and arrests. According to the official statistics 83,031 people are currently staying behind bars. 2007 was the year with the highest number of prisoners (90,200), 20 percent higher than the official capacity of all prisons.

 

Maniura z Firanami. About the Prison Projects
Aurelia Nowak interviews Wojciech Duda

During the exhibition The Forms of Living I presented a series of 65 color photographs titled Maniura z Firanami. They show how the inmates organize their cell space. In Polish prison slang 'maniura z firanami' means a cell with bars. It wanted to find out, how inmates cope with the right to privacy, living in shared cells, under the constraint of prison regulations and having to deal with the presence of other prisoners. I carried out the project in the arrest cells of the prison in ul. Mlynska in Poznan.

 

Rawicz Prison, 2009
Agnieszka Kłos

Agnieszka Kłos took photos of prisoners' artworks in Rawicz. One artist, for instance, presents a sea landscape: In the background you can see part of the prison courtyard with the gate to freedom.

 

Rebellion of a Prison Governor? About Artur Żmijewski 's project Powtórzenie (Repetition)
Rafał Jakubowicz

In 2005, in the Polish Pavilion at the 51st Venice Biennale, Artur Żmijewski and Joanna Mytkowska presented the project Powtórzenie (Repetition). The project is repeating the famous Stanford Prison Experiment Philip G. Zimbardo carried out with 24 student-volunteers in 1971. According to Artur Żmijewski the people in Powtórzenie who are reduced to the role of performers fight for their subjectivity. It is the fight of prisoner no. 433 who leaves the prison in protest. It is also the fight of a prison governor. During a discussion with the prisoners he describes their common situation and persuades everyone to leave the prison.

 

Artur Konowalik responds to the Comments

Artur Konowalik's letters from the prison where he has been locked up for the last 18 years were published on various Internet portals in Poland and elsewhere. Many Internet users have posted their comments. This text is Artur's reply to some of the comments.

 

Minimalism of Guantanamo, 2008
Tomasz Bajer

Tomasz Bajer created Looking for the order in chaos as a lively and surprising labyrinth of traces. His involvement in social and political issues goes beyond the Polish context and places him close to American artists who criticize current U.S. foreign policies.

 

ART IN PRACTICE


Private – Public. Artworks of Wojciech Duda as an Arena of Tensions
Aurelia Nowak

Wojciech Duda's art reflects his sensitivity for socio-political issues. Poland's most recent history frequently inspires his works. He uses words and signs, the rich reservoir of national and religious symbols, well-known logos and advertising slogans, and he questions their meanings. Wojciech Duda's works are based on contrasting statements and full of absurd humor, and they capture the local specificity.

 

The Effectiveness of Art and a Ghetto for the Homeless. Łukasz Surowiec's Project Happy New Year
Stanisław Ruksza

The central part of the project is the documentary Happy New Year, shot in an illegally built house in the center of Katowice – the heart of Silesia's metropolitan area which has over two million inhabitants. The homeless built the makeshift house as good as they could. They did not ask for pseudo-social public aid, and they did not move into state-run shelters. They chose to live on their own terms. As the artist says: "The story is about a community which has its own system of values, rights and obligations, and which is trying to survive in the capitalist jungle. They do not understand why some houses are abandoned. They do not understand why they cannot stay there. They do not understand why people had to freeze to death. It is the story about the people neoliberal politicians are still not ready to accept."

 

Monty Catsin. Amen!
Mikołaj Iwański

Almost every review of Istvan Kantor's biography mentions that he has been kicked out of most museums in the world. In 2004, Kantor received the most prestigious national award for visual artists in Canada, the Governor General's Award. His comment was: "This is as if someone takes revenge. My work has always been against the establishment, it was anti-art, against any authority, and now I am suddenly respected by the same people who have put me in jail several times. Now I can talk, now I have a podium."

 

Montage by Ewa Mikina based on an Interview with Maria Monalisa Gharavi and Ricardo Dominguez

In his activities Ricardo Dominguez, the founder of The Electronic Disturbance Theater, combines new technologies, performance, and activism. He did not just create many new artistic forms but ways of artistic social engagement. In 1998 he developed the technology of "swarms" or virtual sit-ins together with the Zapatistas in Chiapas. Hackers used his practice, and that is why he is considered the pioneer of hacktivism. He also takes part in the organizing of direct street actions, and he defines his practice as "performatory matrices".

 

The Twilight of Vanguardism
David Graeber

Revolutionary thinkers have been saying that the age of vanguardism is over for most of a century now. Outside of a handful of tiny sectarian groups, it's almost impossible to find radical intellectuals who seriously believe that their role should be to determine the correct historical analysis of the world situation, so as to lead the masses along in the one true revolutionary direction. But it seems much easier to renounce the principle than to shake the accompanying habits of thought. Vanguardist and even sectarian attitudes have become deeply ingrained in academic radicalism. It's hard to say what it would mean to think outside them.

 

A-VARIA


Max Stirner and the Issue of the Subject
Andrzej Grzybowski

This text wants to explain Max Stirner's ideas and examine the issue of the subject in his work The Ego and Its Own. The book was revolutionary, but the censorship considered it too absurd to be dangerous. According to Marx, who knew Stirner from meetings of the Young Hegelians, Stirner was trapped in the world of his own illusions.

 

Right and Wrong Tracks of Anti-Semitism and Racism in Music – from Punkrock to Rap
Remigiusz Kasprzycki

Since the Woodstock-festival, rock music has been connected for better or for worse with socio-political issues. Hundreds of radical and uncompromising rock lyrics have been written. They point to injustice, mock the world's powerful, and often defend the poor. From its birth the rock scene was characterized by rebelliousness, pertness and a commitment to the problems of the world.

Artykuł aktualizowany: 11.12.2011